État actuel des introductions et de la propagation en Europe des bioagresseurs exotiques liés aux plantes ligneuses (Résumé)

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URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2042/70307  |   DOI : https://doi.org/10.4267/2042/70307
Title: État actuel des introductions et de la propagation en Europe des bioagresseurs exotiques liés aux plantes ligneuses (Résumé)
Author: Roques, Alain
Abstract: A recent analysis of a worldwide database of the dates of introduction of more than 17 000 animal and plant species into continents other than their native one shows that, in most groups — in particular insects and other arthropods — establishment of new species is not saturated. With globalisation has brought about an exponential increase in the rate of arrival of new alien species of terrestrial invertebrates in Europe, rising from 7 to nearly 20 per year as between the first half of the last century and today. The increase is mainly due to the arrival of plant-eating invertebrates (11.5/year) whereas the other groups are tending to regress. These plant-eating invertebrates are also significantly more associated with woody plants (8 new species per year) than with herbaceous ones. Just over 480 species, essentially insects plus some mites and nematodes, have become established on woody plants in Europe since 1800. The arrival of so-called emerging species, not known to be invasive elsewhere, is a main feature of the latest period bringing to the fore the need to define identification tools for potential invaders. The pathways and vectors of the invasion have moved to trade in ornamental plants and to a lesser degree wooden packaging, while trade in timber is more limited with just a few species having been introduced via this pathway. Furthermore, Asia has become the main source of these introductions. Another characteristic feature of the current period is the acceleration in the species’ speed of propagation once they are established. The species detected in Europe after 1990 spread approximately 3 to 4 times faster than those that had arrived earlier. The cause of this appears to be the combination of changes in economic policies implemented in Europe with the explosion of the trade in ornamental plants, particularly shrubs. nearly half of these pests confine themselves to their original alien plant, but an analysis of the variation over time in colonisation of the large groups of host woody plants shows up a recent acceleration in new species associated with eucalyptus, palm trees and other woody plants originating from regions with warm climates, suggesting that there is a connection with global warming.
Publisher: AgroParisTech, Nancy, France
Date: 2018

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