Une légende forestière. - Le Tire et Aire.

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URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2042/33518
Title: Une légende forestière. - Le Tire et Aire.
Author: REUSS, E.; BLAIS, R.
Abstract: A FOREST MYTH - THE " TIRE ET AIRE " - This work was wrotten by Eugène Reuss (1847-1926) who waslecturer in second for the lectures on the forest managementat the Ecole Nationale des Eaux et Forêts from 1880 to 1889.Reuss, Alsatian by origin, was quite master of the germanlanguage; he devoted a part of his works to get the foretsmanagement and the forest organisation of the german countriesknown.Let us quote specially :Study on the forest experimentation in Germany and inAustria in Annales de la Science agronomique, 1884; The SpessartForest, in Annales de la Science agronomique, 1896; The Forestteaching in Austria and in Bavaria, Annales de la Science agronomique,18851 The Baron of Seckendorf, Revue des Eaux etForêts, 1887; The Forest Management in Saxony (on the pseudonymof Reaumont in Revue des Eaux et Forêts, 1885; TheQualified Selection System, report on the work by Tichy « Derqualifizierte planterbetrieb, Munich, 1891, », etc.In 1896 Reuss published a work on the International ForestExhibition of 1884 in Edinburgh.Reuss is died leaving unfinished a voluminous manuscript onthe question of the " Tire et Aire " (system of clear — cuttingby successive compartments leaving 6 to 8 standards per acre).It is known that this point out currently the chief method offorest management used by the french foresters on the " AncienRégime ".The study of Reuss is built on the knowledge of numeroustexts of archives, concerning specially the famous forest ofFontainebleau that he managed from 1897 to 1911 and from1914 to 1918, and on the conscientious and methodic abstracts of the old forest works, specially of the collections of the regulationsof the XVII° century.This manuscript was revised, often curtailed, sometimescompleted by Mr. Blais, inspecteur des Eaux et Forêts, à Nancy,who, besides, gave an introduction and a conclusion.This study includes 3 book :Book I. — The author, in a kind of autobiography, indicateshow he came to doubt the classic position of the problem of the" Tire et Aire ". He does so a serious criticism of the authorswho preceded him and gives the first complete account of theGreat Reformations of the forest of Fontainebleau.Book II. — The author scrutinizes the different forms of theexpression " Tire et Aire ". It is one of the most important partsof the book. A philological and historical analysis leads himto distinguish the " Tire et Aire " commonage (or tire et airewood cutter from the " Tire et Aire location ".In the first case the " Tire et Aire " gives to the wood cutterthe obligation for cutting in following and for making groundclean. In the second case, it is equivalent to a rule of locationof fellings. This last case assumes also modalities. If you laya stress on the word " Tire ", you are led to the " Tire et Airecontiguity " which is equivalent to the prescription of markingtwo successive fellings in following, from place to place. If, onthe contrary, you lay a tress on the word " Aire ", that is to say,on the idea of empty space, you are led to the " tire et aireintensity " which can be expressed by the rule of removingalltogether, at the time of the felling, the greater part of thegrowing stock. The " Tire et Aire intensity " is then alike theclean felling.Book III. — These distinctions been done, Reuss examines thenotion of " tire et aire " in general texts and in ones peculiarto some forests. He reviews so very suggestively our old forestbills.Amongst the results of this important study, it is right topoint out essentially, that the old method of high forests management does not include the prescription of felling from placeto place. The reality was much more compliant, much moreshaded, ant it is wrongfully that the famous ordonnance ofColbert 1669 was made to mean that it ordered the " Tire etAire " as a method of forest management.It is a very good exemple of scientific method which is givenby the author when he concludes :" The myth sprung from that the expression " "Tire et Aire "was used from immemorial time in various respects; from thatthe authors have often involved these respects between them andhave not attentively read the text where they were; lastly fromthat the mistake committed by authors of note have been,generally speaking, transcribed, with eyes shut, in the worksof their sucessors."It is right to point out that the professor Huffel in his famousworks on the forest history, had already criticized, very earnestly,the silly and as all of a lump, way, in which the old frenchsylviculture was fancied.The researchs of Eugène Reuss, on this point, undertakenbefore the ones of Gustave Huffel and drawn out during all hislife bring, on their posthumous form, something new. Thefrench forest history, in order to be known in an adequate manner,will require many general or regional monographies. EugèneReuss contributed by this work to light some dark recessesof our forest past time. The publication of that importantgeneral monography put to the disposal of the seekers a tool offirst value.
Publisher: ENEF, Ecole nationale des eaux et forêts, Nancy (FRA)
Date: 1938

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