Les améliorations pastorales en montagne

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URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2042/33477
Title: Les améliorations pastorales en montagne
Author: HULIN, V.
Abstract: PASTURE-IMPROVEMENTS - The pasture-improvements that are carried out in the mountains have for object to make pastoral husbandry more rational,more lucrative and, at the same time, more protecting for mountainous countries.That husbandry, to say the truth, is now in full expansion, but we find still, here and there, methods which seem to us rudimental and not always suitable enough to private as well as to general or common interest. It has the purpose to obtain the greatest production of grass of good quality. Cattle and small cattle feed on that grass and thus are able to supply men with the maximum of useful products (milk, meat, wool, ...). Pastoral husbandry must at once reward the toils and labours, preserve and improve the living soil covering of mountain. To make a rational and moderate use, not to misuse, such is the watchword ! The programme of pasture improvements can be sketched as follows: Two elements are to be taken into consideration: The menand the cattle. Both are to have the easiest access, the greatest facility of traffic and to be as confortable as possible. The cattle must find plenty of good food and drinking water too on the pasture-ground. a) For access and traffic, we shall open roads, pathways and good tracks. b) For the stay or sojourn, sheperds and cheese makers will have roomy, clean, confortable huts or cottages (if possible) built. That will render the latter able to prepare good cheese in hygienic and normal conditions. It is necessary for cattle to be protected against the cold during the night, against rain and wind that are frequent in our lofty mountains. That shelter is given by sheds or halls. The sick animals are to be tended, if necessary, in special and small stalls.All that is included in the chapter of pastoral buildings, avery important one. c) We have now the most important of all: plentiful and nutritious provender for the cattle is always and absolutely necessary. It is a fact that the fittest plants for fodder arenot numerous among the grass in most cases; we find oft weeds that neither cows nor sheep will graze. The soil is more or less covered with stones or with small shrubs (heather, broom, bilberry, ...). In order to obtain a good and unbroken greensward, it will be necessary to perform stone-clearings, to manure with dung or with chemical manures, to pull up all the noxious plants. d) We must provide men and animals with drinking water; to attain that end, the running waters will be collected as well as the springs and directed towards the huts or towards basinsand watering-places. In case of dryness of the soil it shall be proceeded to watering. On the contrary, the marshy ground shall be drained. e) We have next to set up fence along the precipitous parts or those which are forbidden, to hinder snow-slips or struggle against them if we cannot maintain the snow on the spot. f) The mountain-climate is always cold and damp : fuel is necessary in every season. Therefore all clumps of trees oreven thickets are precious and must be laid by and if possibleincreased by plantations. All these improvements can be classed in two groups: 1) Thosewhich concern the ground itself, like manuring, stone-clearing,watering, pulling up of shrubs. 2) Those which contribute to make better the use and fabrication: roads, pathways, construction of huts, basins, fences.
Publisher: ENEF, Ecole nationale des eaux et forêts, Nancy (FRA)
Date: 1930

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