Des faux malentendus au vrai différend

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URI http://hdl.handle.net/2042/14388
DOI https://doi.org/10.4267/2042/14388
Title Des faux malentendus au vrai différend
Author RIGO, Bernard
Abstract La rencontre Occident/Polynésie ne s'est historiquement pas faite sans heurt et Marshall Sahlins explique comment Cook a pu être victime à Hawaii d'un malentendu culturel ou comment les Maori de Nouvelle-Zélande ont été dupés par le traité de Waitangi. Pourtant, précisément, dans ces deux cas, comme dans tant d'autres, le malentendu n'est pas nécessairement là où on l'imagine, la violence n'est pas forcément issue du malentendu lui-même. L'écart culturel est-il facteur de désordre ou bien, parce qu'il est écart, n'offre-t-il pas la distance d'un champ interculturel, l'espace d'un agir communicationnel qui rend plus difficile le choc frontal de deux discours, antagonistes dès qu'ils sont semblables ? Pour aussi paradoxale qu'elle paraisse, la question a le mérite da changer la forme de la problématique sur la rencontre culturelle et de dresser de nouvelles perspectives à l'analyse sociologique. Ce qui se donne aujourd'hui comme expression du choc culturel : revendications identitaires, culturalisme, traditionalisme, etc. est-il l'expression bavarde d'une altérité culturelle jusque-là non comprise ou l'effet d'un ultime différend ?
Description Historically the contacts between the West and Polynesia have always been characterized by a degree of difficulty. For example Marshall Sahlins explains how Cook was the victim of a cultural misunderstanding in Hawaii or how the Maoris of New Zealand were deceived by the Waitangi Treaty. Yet, in these two specific cases as in so many others, the misunderstanding was not necessarily where one would expect it to be and violence did not necessarily derive from the misunderstanding in itself. Does the cultural gap generate disorder or because of its very nature as a gap does it not actually provide for an intercultural “communicational acting space” that makes the head-on collision of two discourses more difficult and cause antagonism as soon as they find common ground? As paradoxical as it may seem, this question has the merit of changing the form of the problem regarding cultural encounters and raising new prospects for sociological analysis. Is what is presented today as an expression of cultural collision (identity-based claims, culturalism, traditionalism and so forth) the spoken expression of a cultural otherness that has yet to be understood or the result of some more fundamental difference?After two centuries of cultural transformations in French Polynesia, the official land law is unable to meet the expectations. It did not succeed in incorporate the traditional norms. Actually, the official land law generates a situation of judicial and cultural pluralism which is all the more important that autochtonous norms are divergents. A land reform should take into account such a situation of pluralism.
Subject Malentendu; Différend; Choc culturel; Occident; Communication; Interculturalisme; Différence culturelle; Contact culturel; Relation interculturelle; Altérité; Identité; Polynésie; Océanie; Western countries; Communication; Interculturalism; Cultural difference; Cultural contact; Intercultural relation; Otherness; Identity; Polynesia; Oceania
Publisher CNRS Editions, Paris (FRA)
Date 2002

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